1

ozi

Ngwakọta kemịkal Furfural

Fgha (C4H3O-CHO), a na-akpọkwa 2-furaldehyde, onye a kacha mara amara nke ezinụlọ furan na isi iyi nke ndị ọzọ dị mkpa na teknụzụ furans. Ọ bụ mmiri na-enweghị ntụ (ebe esi 161.7 Celsius C; ike ndọda 1.1598) n'okpuru ọchịchịrị na ikuku. Ọ na-agbaze na mmiri ruo pasent 8.3 na 20 Celsius C na mmanya na ether zuru oke.

22

 Ihe dị ka afọ 100 kara akara oge site na nchọpụta nke furfural na laabu ruo na azụmaahịa izizi mbụ na 1922. Usoro mmepe ụlọ ọrụ na-esote na-enye ihe atụ magburu onwe ya nke iji ihe mkpofu ahịhịa arụ ọrụ. Corncobs, oat hulls, cottonseed hulls, osikapa hull na bagasse bụ isi ihe ndị sitere na isi mmalite, na-emejupụta kwa afọ nke na-eme ka a na-ebugharị ya. Na n'ichepụta usoro, nza nke akụrụngwa na itughari sulfuric acid bụ steamed n'okpuru nrụgide na nnukwu rotary digesters. A na-ewepụ furfural e guzobere na-aga n'ihu na uzuoku, ma na-etinye uche na distillation; distillate, na odide, ekewa abụọ n'ígwé. Ala oyi akwa, gụnyere mmiri furfural, na-akpọnwụ site agụụ distillation iji nweta furfural nke kacha nta 99 percent ọcha.

A na-eji Furfural eme ihe dị ka ihe na-ahọrọ ihe nhicha maka ịmịcha mmanụ na rosin, na iji melite njirimara nke mmanụ dizel na ndị na-ewepụta ihe na-emepụta ihe. A na-arụ ọrụ ya nke ọma na imepụta wiilị abrasive resin-na bonded na maka ịdị ọcha nke butadiene dị mkpa maka mmepụta nke roba sịntetik. Mmepụta nke naịlọn chọrọ hexamethylenediamine, nke furfural bụ isi ihe dị mkpa. Condensation na phenol na-enye furfural-phenolic resins maka ọtụtụ ojiji.

Mgbe vapors nke furfural na hydrogen gafere ọla kọpa na-arụ ọrụ na okpomọkụ dị elu, a na-emepụta mmanya furfuryl. A na-eji ihe mgbakwasị ụkwụ a dị mkpa na ụlọ ọrụ plastik maka imepụta cements na-eguzogide corrosion na ihe nkedo-akpụzi. Hydrogenation yiri ya nke furfuryl mmanya n'elu ihe na-akpata nickel na-enye tetrahydrofurfuryl mmanya, nke sitere na ya sitere na esters dị iche iche na dihydropyran.

 Na mmeghachi omume ya dị ka aldehyde, furfural yiri nnọọ benzaldehyde. N'ihi ya, ọ na-enweta mmeghachi omume Cannizzaro na alkali mmiri dị ike; ọ na-ebelata furoin, C4H3OCO-ỌR--C4H3O, n’okpuru mmetụta nke potassium cyanide; a gbanwere ya na hydrofuramide, (C4H3O-CH)3N2, site na omume nke amonia. Agbanyeghị, furfural dị iche na benzaldehyde n'ọtụtụ ụzọ, nke autoxidation ga-abụ ihe atụ. Mgbe ekpughere ikuku na ikuku okpomọkụ, a na-eweda furfral ma rapara na formic acid na formylacrylic acid. Furoic acid bụ ezigbo ọcha dị ọcha dị ka ọgwụ na-egbu egbu na ihe nchekwa. Ndị esters ya bụ mmiri na-esi ísì ụtọ nke a na-eji esi nri na isi na isi.


Post oge: Ọgọstụ-15-2020